Echinocereus abbae – Echinocereus crispatus

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Echinocereus Engelmann 1848a:91.
Type: Echinocereus viridiflorus Engelmann

Echinocereus abbeae Parsons 1937:6.
  Type - locality: Mexico, Sonora, Delta Bacuachic River, 30m (29o49'N, 111o51'W); S. H. Parsons, 2 March 1932 (?).
    Nomenclatural synonyms:
      Echinocereus fasciculatus subsp. abbeae* Blum 1997 Seed List. nom. nud.
        Note: Listed erroneously as a synonym of Echinocereus fenderi var. albiflorus (Backeberg 1960:2047, Bravo 1991:70).
          Taylor (1985b:50) treats this species as a taxonomic synonym of Echinocereus fendleri var. fasciculatus.
Echinocereus acifer* Engelmann ex Haage 1859:19 nom. nud. [Probably = Echinocereus acifer Jacobi].
Echinocereus acifer (Otto ex Salm-Dyck) Jacobi 1856:109.
  basionym: Cereus acifer Otto ex Salm-Dyck 180:189.
    Type - locality: unknown; ? (?).
      Nomenclatural synonyms:
        Echinocereus longispinus* Hort. ex Schelle 1926:180 pro syn.
        Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. acifer (Otto ex Salm-Dyck) Bravo 1978:66.
        Echinocereus polyacanthus var. acifer* Parker 1996:4 nom. nud.
        Echinocereus polyacanthus subsp. acifer (Otto ex Salm-Dyck) Taylor 1997:9.
          Note: Taylor (1984:159) uses the name Echinocereus polyacanthus var. densus for this species.
            Cereus acifer* Otto ex Forster 1846:433 nom. nud. is usually listed as a synonym of this species.
Echinocereus acifer* Lemaire 1868:57 nom. nud.
  [Probably = Echinocereus acifer Jacobi].
Echinocereus acifer var. brevispinulus Jacobi 1856:109-110.
  Type - locality: Mexico.
Echinocereus acifer var. brevispinus Haage 1859:19 nom. nud.
  [Probably =  Echinocereus acifer var. brevispinulus Jacobi 1856].
Echinocereus acifer var. diversispinus Schumann 1897:287.
  Type - locality: Mexico, Coahuila & Durango; ? (?).
Echinocereus acifer var. durangensis (Poselger ex Rumpler) Schumann 1897:287.
  = Echinocereus durangensis.
Echinocereus acifer subsp. huitcholensis (Weber) Lange 1994:109.
  = Echinocereus huitcholensis.
Echinocereus acifer var. longispinus* Haage 1892:116 nom. nud.
Echinocereus acifer var. tenuispinus Jacobi 1856:109.
  Type - locality: North America.
Echinocereus acifer subsp. topiensis (Rischer & Trocha) Rischer 2004:88.
  = Echinocereus topiensis W. Rischer & Trocha 1999.
Echinocereus acifer var. trichacanthus Hort. ex Hildmann 1891:44.
  Type - locality: unknown; ? (?).
Echinocereus acifer subsp. tubiflorus Rischer in Blum et al. 1998a:1. [see Blum et al. 1998b:409-410].
  Type - locality: Mexico, Zacactecas - Durango border, San Juan Capistran; Rischer, 17 April 1990 (ZSS AX 17983).
Echinocereus acifer subsp. ventanensis Rischer 2009: 63.
  Type - locality: Mexiko: Sinaloa, 63.4 miles west of El Salto (Durango), 6300 alt.; Kimnach 563, 25. Nov. 1964 (HNT 8399).
Cereus acinaciformis* Steudel 1841:333 pro syn.
  = Echinocereus cinerascens.
Cereus acinaciformis* Hort. Berol. ex Salm-Dyck 1845:27 pro syn.
  = Echinocereus cinerascens.
Cereus aciniformis* Otto 1833:336 nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus cinerascens var. crassior.
Cereus aciniformis* Hort. Berol. ex Pfeiffer 1837:101 pro syn.
  = Echinocereus cinerascens var. crassior.
Echinocereus adustus Engelmann 1848a:104.
  Type - locality: Mexico, Chihuahua, Cosihuiriachi, 1900 m.; Wislizenus, 1846. (MO 2371547).
    Nomenclatural synonyms:
      Cereus adustus (Engelmann) Engelmann 1849:50.
      Echinocereus pectinatus var. adustus (Engelmann) Daul 1890:78.
      Echinocereus pectinatus fa. adustus (Engelmann) Voss 1894:378.
      Echinocereus pectinatus var. adustus* Schumann 1897:271.
      Echinocereus caespitosus var. adustus (Engelmann) Engelmann ex Borg 1937:174.
        Note: Echinocereus radians and Echinocereus rufispinus are usually considered taxonomic synonyms of this species.
Echinocereus adustus var. bonatzii (Roemer) Taylor 1998:15.
  = Echinocereus bonatzii Roemer 1995:10.
Cereus adustus var. radians (Engelmann) Engelmann 1849:50
  = Echinocereus radians.
Echinocereus adustus subsp. roemerianus W. Rischer 2003a:44.
  Type - locality: Mexico, Durango, Canatlan; R. C. Roemer 6066714 (UNAM).
Echinocereus adustus var. schwarzii (Lau) Taylor 1985a:268.
  = Echinocereus schwarzii.
Echinocereus adustus subsp. schwarzii (Lau) Taylor 1997:8.
  = Echinocereus schwarzii.
Echinocereus adustus var. schwarzii fa. madrensis* Parker 1996:6. nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus madrensis.
Echinocereus adustus var. schwarzii fa. radians* Parker 1996:6. nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus radians.
Echinocereus adustus var. schwarzii fa. rufispinus* Parker 1996:6. nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus rufispinus.
Echinocereus aggregatus Rydberg 1906:146.
  = Mammillaria aggregata* Engelmann 1848b:157. nom. prov.
  = Mammillaria aggregata Engelmann ex Watson 1878:398 pro syn.
  [Rydberg used this name instead of Echinocereus coccineus].  see Echinocereus coccineus subsp. aggregatus.
Echinocereus aguirrei* Glass 1965:160 nom. nud. [a form of Echinocereus pulchellus].
Echinocereus aguirreanus* Hort. ex Blum et al. 1998b:253 pro syn.
  = Echinocereus pulchellus.
Echinocereus albatus* Backeberg 1960:2007-2008 nom. inval. (no type designated).
  Nomenclatural synonyms:
    Echinocereus albispinus* Hort. ex Backeberg 1960:2007 pro syn.
    Echinocereus longisetus var. albatus* Sterk 1980:12-13 nom. inval.
      Note: Usually considered a taxonomic synonym of Echinocereus nivosus.
Echinocereus albiflorus Weingart 1933:156.
  Type - locality: Mexico, Chihuahua; Halbinger (?).
    Nomenclatural synonyms:
      Echinocereus fendleri var. albiflorus (Weingart)  Backeberg 1960:2047.
      Echinocereus fendleri fa. albiflorus* Parker 1996: 2 nom. nud.
        Note: Backeberg 1960:2047 and Bravo 1991:70 erroneously list Echinocereus abbeae as a synonym of this species.
          Taylor (1985b) lists this species as a taxonomic synonym of Echinocereus fendleri. It is probably a form of E. hempelii.
Echinocereus albiflorus* Lowry 1937:20 nom. nud. [Probably a white flowering form of Echinocereus enneacanthus].
Echinocereus albispinus Lahman 1935:143.
  Type - locality: Oklahoma, Medicine Park; Lahman (MO).
    Nomenclatural synonyms:
      Echinocereus baileyi var. albispinus (Lahman) Backeberg 1941:4.
      Echinocereus longispinus var. albispinus* Backeberg 1960:2010.
      Echinocereus reichenbachii var. albispinus (Lahman) Benson 1969b:127.
      Echinocereus reichenbachii var. baileyi fa. albispinus* Mesa Garden Seed Catalog 1996 nom. nud.
        Note: The name Echinocereus reichenbachii var. albispinus is used for  Echinocereus baileyi by Benson (1969b:127).
          Taylor (1985b) lists this species as a taxonomic synonym of Echinocereus reichenbachii var. baileyi.
Echinocereus albispinus* Hort. ex Backeberg 1960:2007 pro syn. = Echinocereus albatus.
Echinocereus amoenus (Dietrich) Weber ex Haage 1892:116.
  basionym: Echinopsis amoena Dietrich 1844:187-188.
    Type - locality: Mexico, Hidalgo, near San Mateo 7500 ft.; Ehrenberg (?).
      Nomenclatural synonyms:
        Echinopsis pulchella var. flore kermesina* Haage ex Forster 1846:364. pro syn.
        Echinopsis pulchella var. amoena (Dietrich) Forster 1846:364.
        Echinopsis pulchella var. rosea* Labouret 1853:292. pro syn.
        Cereus amoenus (Dietrich) Hemsley 1880:540.
        Echinocereus pulchellus var. amoenus (Dietrich) Forster ex  Schumann 1897:253.
        Echinocereus pulchellus subsp. amoenus (Dietrich) Blum 1997 Seed list. nom. nud.
        Note: Echinocereus amoenus is usually attributed to Schumann 1894:185.  Taylor (1989:75) notes that the plant
          usually known in cultivation as "Echinocereus amoenus" is instead a form of Echinocereus weinbergii.
Echinocereus amoenus var. aguirre* Zehnter & Kunzler Catalog nom. nud. = Echinocereus aguirrei*.
Echinocereus amoenus var. albiflorus* Hort. ex Blum et al. 1998b:259 pro syn.
Echinocereus angusticeps Clover 1935:79.
  Type - locality: Texas, Hidalgo Co., Linn; Clover 15261 (MICH).
    Nomenclatural synonyms:
      Echinocereus papillosus var. angusticeps (Clover) Marshall & Bock 1941:119.
      Echinocereus blanckii var. angusticeps (Clover) Benson 1969b:260.
      Echinocereus berlandieri var. angusticeps (Clover) Benson 1976:59.
      Echinocereus papillosus subsp. angusticeps* Blum 1997 Seed List nom. nud.
      Note: Benson uses the names Echinocereus blanckii var. angusticeps and  Echinocereus berlandieri var. angusticeps for
        Echinocereus papillosus subsp. papillosus.
Echinocereus anneacanthus* Daul 1890:73. (misprint for E. enneacanthus).
Echinocereus apachensis Blum & Rutow in Blum et al. 1998a:1. [see Blum et al. 1998b:101.]
  Type - locality: Arizona, Maricopa Co. Fish Creek; Mc Kelvey 735, 18 Feb. 1929  (US 1532949).
    Nomenclatural synonyms:
      Echinocereus bonkerae subsp. apachensis (W.Blum & Rutow) A.D. Zimmerman in Baker et al. 2009:120.
Echinocereus arizonicus Rose ex Orcutt 1926:3.
  Type - locality: Arizona, Boundary Monument between Pinal & Gila Counties, 4700 ft.; C. R. Orcutt, July 1922 (NY).
    Nomenclatural synonyms:
      Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. arizonicus (Rose ex Orcutt) Benson 1969a:21.
      Echinocereus coccineus var. arizonicus (Rose ex Orcutt)  Ferguson 1989:221.
Echinocereus arizonicus subsp. matudae (Bravo) Rutow in Lange & Rutow 1994:51.
  = Echinocereus matudae.
Echinocereus arizonicus subsp. nigrihorridispinus Blum & Rutow in Blum et al. 1998a:3. [see Blum et al. 1998b:370-371].
  Type - locality: New Mexico, Luna Co.; HK 1054 (ZSS AX 17982).
Echinocereus armatus (Poselger) Poselger ex Backeberg & Knuth 1935:318.
  = Echinocereus pectinatus var. armatus.
*Echinocereus arrojadei Lofgren [from Brazil and thus not an Echinocereus].
Echinocereus australis* Backeberg 1937:21 nom. nud.
Echinocereus australis* Hort. ex Backeberg 1960:2045 pro syn.
  = Echinocereus fendleri.
Echinocereus bakeri W.BLUM, OLDACH & J.OLDACH, Int. Cact. Advent. 106-107: 22. 2015.
  Type - locality: Arizona, Yavapai County, 6 km. north of Clarkdale ; Marc A. Baker 13930, 18 March 2001 (ASU 0076433)
Echinocereus baileyi Rose 1909b:403.
  Type - locality: Oklahoma, Wichita Mountains.; V. Bailey, Aug. 1906 (US 53167).
    Nomenclatural synonyms:
      Echinocereus reichenbachii var. baileyi (Rose) Taylor 1985b:133.
      Echinocereus reichenbachii subsp. baileyi (Rose) Taylor 1997:9.
        Note: The name Echinocereus reichenbachii var. albispinus is used for this species by Benson (1969b:127 ).
Echinocereus baileyi var. albispinus (Lahman) Backeberg 1941:4.
  = Echinocereus albispinus Lahman.
Echinocereus baileyi var. brunispinus Backeberg 1941:4.
  Type - locality: Oklahoma, Wichita Mountains; ? (?).
    Note: Backeberg 1960:2010 lists Echinocereus longispinus and Echinocereus oklahomensis as synonyms of this variety.
Echinocereus baileyi var. caespiticus* Backeberg 1960:2011 nom. inval. (no type designated).
Echinocereus baileyi var. flavidispinus Backeberg 1941:4.
  Type - locality: Oklahoma, Wichita Mountains; ? (?).
Echinocereus baileyi var. roseispinus Backeberg 1941:4.
  Type - locality: Oklahoma, Wichita Mountains; ? (?)
Echinocereus barcelona* Orcutt 1926:4 nom. nud.
Echinocereus barcena* Rebut ex Hirscht 1896:126 nom. nud.
Echinocereus barcena Fobe 1911:56.
  Type - locality: unknown; ? (?) [from central Mexico according to Borg 1937:178].
    Nomenclatural synonyms:
      Echinocereus parkeri fa. barcena* Parker 1996:3 nom. nud.
Echinocereus barcena* Rebut ex Berger 1929 nom. illegit. (later homonym) [Perhaps  = Echinocereus barcena Fobe].
Echinocereus barkeanus* Heyer 1989:25 nom. nud. [= Lau 1101].
  = Echinocereus rayonesensis.
Echinocereus barthelowanus Britton & Rose 1922:41.
  Type - locality: Baja California, Isla Magdalena, Santa Maria Bay; J. N. Rose, 18 March 1911 (US 16278).
Echinocereus bauerii Rother 1902:61.
  Type - locality: ? (?).
    Nomenclatural synonym:
      Echinocereus pectinatus var. bauerii Rother 1923:127.
Echinocereus bergeanus* Haage 1900:156 nom. nud.
Echinocereus berlandianus* Orcutt 1926:3 [error in spelling for Echinocereus berlandieri].
Echinocereus berlandieri (Engelmann) Haage 1859:19.
  basionym: Cereus berlandieri Engelmann 1856:286. [see Engelmann 1859:38, t.58].
    Type - locality: Texas, Nueces River; Berlandier 2423, April 1834 (MO).
      Nomenclatural synonyms:
        Echinocereus blankii* Hort. ex Palmer 1865:92 pro syn.
        Echinocereus blanckii var. berlandieri (Engelmann) Backeberg 1960:1999.
          Note: Echinocereus poselgerianus is usually considered a taxonomic synonym of this species. This species is
            often erroneously treated as a synonym of Echinocereus blanckii.
Echinocereus berlandieri var. angusticeps (Clover) Benson 1976:59.
  = Echinocereus angusticeps.
Echinocereus berlandieri var. blanckii* Fournier 1935:21 nom. illegit.
  = Echinocereus blanckii.
Echinocereus berlandieri var. longispinus* Hort. ex Schelle 1926: 163 nom. nud.
Echinocereus berlandieri var. papillosus (Linke ex Rumpler) Benson 1976:59.
  = Echinocereus papillosus.
Echinocereus berlandieri var. poselgerianus (Linke) Lode 1992:17.
  = Echinocereus poselgerianus.
*Echinocereus bertinii = Austrocactus bertinii.
*Echinocereus bicolor Galeotti  [error in spelling for Echinocactus bicolor].
Cereus bigelovii* Engelmann 1857: t. 4 nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus mojavensis.
Cereus bigelovii var. zuniensis* Engelmann 1857: t. 4 nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus mojavensis var. zuniensis.
Echinocereus blanckii (Poselger) Poselger ex Rumpler 1886:779.
  basionym: Cereus blanckii Poselger 1853:134.
    Type - locality: Mexico, Tamaulipas, near Camargo; Poselger (?).
      Nomenclatural synonyms:
        Echinocereus berlandieri var. blanckii* Fournier 1935:21 nom. illegit.
          Note: This species is usually considered a taxonomic synonym of Echinocereus enneacanthus subsp. brevispinus. The
            name Echinocereus blanckii has been errroneously applied to Echinocereus berlandieri.
Echinocereus blanckii var. angusticeps (Clover) Benson 1969b:260.
  = Echinocereus angusticeps.
    Note: This is the name Benson uses for Echinocereus papillosus subsp. papillosus.
Echinocereus blanckii var. berlandieri (Engelmann) Backeberg 1960:1999.
  = Echinocereus berlandieri.
Echinocereus blanckii var. inermis* Heyer 1989:26 pro syn.
  = Echinocereus moricallii.
Echinocereus blanckii var. leonensis (Mathsson) Backeberg 1960:1999.
  = Echinocereus leonensis.
Echinocereus blanckii var. papillosus (Linke ex Rumpler) Benson 1969d:126.
  = Echinocereus papillosus.
Echinocereus blanckii var. poselgerianus (Linke) Backeberg 1960:1999.
  = Echinocereus poselgerianus.
Echinocereus blankii* Hort. ex Palmer 1865:92 pro syn.
  = Echinocereus berlandieri.
Echinocereus blumii D. Felix & H. Bauer in Blum, W., D. Felix & H. Bauer. 2012: 220 - 237.
  Type - locality: Mexiko: Coahuila: Municipio Acuna, El Conejo, 1200 m.; det. W. Blum 2006 (KR 21304).
Echinocereus bolansis* Runge ex Haage 1892:117 pro syn.
  = Echinocereus conglomeratus.
*Echinocereus boliviensis Poselger ex Schumann 1897:290.[from Bolivia which means it is not an Echinocereus].
Echinocereus bonatzii Romer 1995:98-113.
  Type - locality: Durango, Sierra Mezquital; H. J. Bonatz 12388 (ZSS).
    Nomenclatural synonyms:
      Echinocereus pamanesiorum subsp. bonatzii (Romer) Romer 1997:45.
Echinocereus bonkerae Thornber & Bonker 1932:71-73, 85.
  Type - locality: Arizona, Pinal Mountains near Oracle; Thornber & Bonker (ARIZ 156240).
    Nomenclatural synonyms:
      Echinocereus fendleri var. bonkerae (Thornber & Bonker) Benson 1944:260.
      Echinocereus boyce-thompsonii var. bonkerae (Thornber & Bonker) Peebles 1949:191-192 .
      Echinocereus fasciculatus var. bonkerae (Thornber & Bonker) Benson 1969a:21.
      Echinocereus engelmannii var. bonkerae* Mesa Garden Seed Catalog 1996. nom. nud.
      Echinocereus fasciculatus subsp. bonkerae (Thornber & Bonker) Taylor 1997:8.
Echinocereus bonkerae subsp. apachensis (W.Blum & Rutow) A.D. Zimmerman in Baker et al. 2009:120.
  = Echinocereus apachensis.
Echinocereus boyce-thompsonii Orcutt 1926:4.
  Type - locality: Arizona, Boyce-Thompson Arboretum; Orcutt (?).
    Nomenclatural synonyms:
      Echinocereus fendleri var. boyce-thompsonii (Orcutt) Benson 1944:260.
      Echinocereus fasciculatus var. boyce-thompsonii (Orcutt) Benson 1969a:22.
      Echinocereus engelmannii var. boyce-thompsonii* Mesa Garden Seed Catalog 1996 nom. nud.
      Echinocereus fasciculatus subsp. boyce-thompsonii (Orcutt) Taylor 1997:8.
Echinocereus boyce-thompsonii var. bonkerae (Thornber & Bonker) Peebles 1949:191-192.
  = Echinocereus bonkerae.
Echinocereus brandegeei (Coulter) Coulter ex Schumann 1897:290.
  basionym: Cereus brandegeei Coulter 1896:389.
    Type - locality: Baja California, between El Campo Aleman & San Gregorio; T.S. Brandegee, 1889 (UC).
      Note: Echinocereus mamillatus and Echinocereus sanborgianus are usually considered taxonomic synonyms of this species.
Echinocereus brandegeei fa. mamillatus* Parker 1996:1 nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus mamillatus.
Echinocereus brandegeei var. sanborgianus* Lode 1994: no. 1272 nom. inval.
  = Echinocereus sanborgianus.
Echinocereus brandegeei fa. sanborgianus* Parker 1996:1 nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus sanborgianus.
Echinocereus brenbergii* Lowry 1933:410 nom. nud.
Echinocereus bristolii Marshall 1938:160-161.
  Type - locality: Sonora, Soyopa, 5000 ft.; Bristol & Marshall, 1934 (DS 251175).
    Nomenclatural synonyms:
      Echinocereus pectinatus var. bristolii (Marshall) Marshall 1956b:81.
Echinocereus bristolii subsp. floresii (Backeberg) Blum & Lange in Blum et al. 1998a:3. [see Blum et al. 1998b:353].
  = Echinocereus floresii.
Echinocereus bristolii var. pseudopectinatus Taylor 1985b:120.
  see Echinocereus pseudopectinatus.
Echinocereus caespitosus (Engelmann) Engelmann 1848a:110.
  basionym: Cereus caespitosus Engelmann 1845:247.
    Type - locality: Texas, Austin Co., Near Cat Springs; Lindheimer, June 1845 (MO).
      Nomenclatural synonyms:
        Cereus caespitosus var. minor* Engelmann 1856:280 [Based on same type as Echinocereus caespitosus].
        Echinocereus pectinatus var. caespitosus (Engelmann) Schumann 1897:272.
        Echinocereus caespitosus var. minor* Engelmann ex Weniger 1970:22 nom. inval.
        Echinocereus reichenbachii fa. caespitosus* Parker 1996:5 nom. nud.
        Echinocereus reichenbachii var. caespitosus* Mesa Garden Seed Catalog 1996 nom. nud.
        Echinocereus reichenbachii subsp. caespitosus (Engelmann) Blum & Lange in Blum et al.1998a:3  [see Blum et al.
          1998b:324].
          Note: Echinocereus caespitosus is often treated as a taxonomic synonym of Echinocereus reichenbachii.
Echinocereus caespitosus var. adustus (Engelmann) Engelmann ex Borg 1937:174.
  = Echinocereus adustus.
Echinocereus caespitosus var. armatus (Poselger) Poselger ex Borg 1937:174.
  = Echinocereus pectinatus var. armatus.
Echinocereus caespitosus fa. armatus subfa. castaneas (Engelmann) Schelle 1907:131.
  = Echinocereus caespitosus var. castaneus.
Echinocereus caespitosus var. candicans* Hort. ex Borg 1937:174 pro syn.
  = Echinocereus reichenbachii.
Echinocereus caespitosus var. castaneus (Engelmann) Engelmann ex Rumpler 1886:811.
  basionym: Cereus caespitosus var. castaneus Engelmann 1850:203.
    Type - locality: Texas, Granitic region of the Llano; Lindheimer, 1847 (MO).
      Nomenclatural synonyms:
        Cereus reichenbachii var. castaneus (Engelmann) Labouret 1853:319.
        Echinocereus pectinatus var. castaneus (Engelmann) Daul 1890:78.
        Echinocereus castaneus (Engelmann) Orcutt 1926:3.
        Echinocereus pectinatus var. jamauvei *Frič ex Orcutt 1926:4 pro syn.
        Echinocereus pectinatus var. adustus fa. castaneus (Engelmann) Engelmann ex Schelle 1926:174.
        Echinocereus caespitosus fa.. castaneus Engelmann ex Borg 1937:174.
        Echinocereus pectinatus fa. castaneus (Engelmann) Krainz 1967:50.
          Note: This variety is now usually considered a taxonomic synonym of  E. caespitosus.
Echinocereus caespitosus fa. castaneus Engelmann ex Borg 1937:174.
Echinocereus caespitosus var. chrysacanthus (Schumann) Schumann ex Borg 1937:174.
  = Echinocereus pectinatus var. chrysacanthus.
Echinocereus caespitosus var. lanugunosus* Walton 1898:12 nom. nud.
Echinocereus caespitosus var. major (Engelmann) Engelmann ex Rumpler 1886:811.
  basionym: Cereus caespitosus var. major Engelmann 1856:280.
    Type - locality: Texas, New Braunfels; Lindheimer, 1851 (MO).
      Note: This variety is now usually considered a taxonomic synonym of  E. caespitosus.
Echinocereus caespitosus var. minor* Engelmann ex Weniger 1970:22 nom. inval.
  basionym: Cereus caespitosus var. minor* Engelmann 1856:280. new name for Echinocereus caespitosus var. caespitosus.
Echinocereus caespitosus var. perbellus* Weniger 1970:23 nom. inval. (no basionym given).
  = Echinocereus perbellus.
Echinocereus caespitosus var. purpureus* Weniger 1970:23 nom. inval. (no basionym given).
  = Echinocereus purpureus.
Echinocereus caespitosus var. reichenbachii* Ters. ex Borg 1937:174 nom. illegit.
  = Echinocereus reichenbachii.
Echinocereus caespitosus var. rubescens* Hort. ex Borg 1951:221 nom. inval. (no Latin diagnosis).
Echinocereus caespitosus var. rufispinus (Schumann) Schumann ex Borg 1951:221.
  = Echinocereus pectinatus var. rufispinus.
Echinocereus caespitosus var. tamaulipensis (Frič) Frič ex Borg 1937:174.
  = Echinocereus pectinatus var. tamaulipensis.
*Echinocereus candicans Rumpler 1886 = Echinopsis candicans.
*Echinocereus candicans var. tenuispinus = Echinopsis candicans
Echinocereus candicans* Runge ex Haage 1859:19 pro syn.
  = Echinocereus pectinatus var. rigidissimus.
Echinocereus candicans var. couranti* Walton 1898:12. nom. nud.
Echinocereus candicans var. dumisnilianus* Walton 1898:12. nom. nud.
Echinocereus candicans var. gladiatus* Walton 1898:12. nom. nud.
Echinocereus candicans var. robustus* Walton 1898:12. nom. nud.
Echinocereus canyonensis Clover & Jotter 1941:417-418.
  Type - locality: Arizona, Coconino Co., Bass Cable, Grande Canyon; Clover & Jotter 2317 (MICH).
    Nomenclatural synonyms:
      Echinocereus coccineus subsp. canyonensis* Blum 1997 Seed List nom. nud.
        Note: Taylor (1985b) lists this species as a synonym of Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. melanacanthus, which currently
          has the proper name Echinocereus coccineus.
Echinocereus canus (Powell & Weedin) Felix & Bauer in Blum et al. 2012:258 - 276.
  = Echinocereus viridiflorus var. canus Powell & Weedin 2004:273.
Echinocereus carmenensis Blum, Lange & Scherer in Blum et al. 1998a:3. [see Blum et al. 1998b:221].
  Type - locality: Mexico, Coahuila, Sierra del Carmen; SB 1476 (ZSS A 17986).
Echinocereus carnosus Rumpler 1886:796-797.
  Type - locality: Texas; ? (?).
    Nomenclatural synonyms:
      Echinocereus enneacanthus fa. carnosus (Rumpler) Schelle 1907:127.
      Echinocereus enneacanthus var. carnosus (Rumpler) Quehl 1908:114.
      Echinocereus enneacanthus var. brevispinus fa. carnosus* Parker 1996:2 nom. nud.
        Note: This species is usually considered a taxonomic synonym of Echinocereus enneacanthus subsp. brevispinus.
Echinocereus castaneus* Engelmann ex Haage 1859:19 nom. nud.
Echinocereus castaneus (Engelmann) Orcutt 1926:3.
  = Echinocereus caespitosus var. castaneus.
*Echinocereus centralis Rose = Echinomastus centralis.
Echinocereus cereiformis* Auct. ? (Kakteenkunde 1935:1) nom. inval. (no Latin diagnosis).
  Note: Taylor (1985b) lists this name as a synonym of Echinocereus berlandieri.
Echinocereus cernosus* Frič 1929:24 nom. nud. [Probably = Echinocereus pectinatus].
Echinocereus chaletii Rischer 2009a:39-57
  Type - locality: Mexico, Chihuahua, Municipio Guachochic, Cumbres de Guarachi; M. Chalet 4335 (IBUG 179029).
Echinocereus chihuahuensis* Shields 1961:4. nom. inval. (no Latin diagnosis).
*Echinocereus chiloensis = Echinopsis chiloensis.
Echinocereus chisoensis Marshall 1940:15.
  Type - locality: Texas, Chisos Mtns.; F. Radley, 10 Apr. 1939 (DS 263216).
    Nomenclatural synonyms:
      Echinocereus reichenbachii var. chisoensis (Marshall) Benson 1969d:127.
Echinocereus chisoensis var. fobeanus (Oehme) Taylor 1985a:261
  = Echinocereus fobeanus.
Echinocereus chisosensis subsp. fobeanus (Oehme) Taylor 2005:10.
  = Echinocereus fobeanus.
Echinocereus chisoensis var. metornii* Parker 1996:5 nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus metornii.
Echinocereus chloranthus (Engelmann) Engelmann ex Haage 1859:19.
  basionym: Cereus chloranthus Engelmann 1856:278-279. [see Engelmann 1859:29].
    Type - locality: Texas, stony hills near Frontera [El Paso]; Wright 95, 2 Apr. 1852 (MO 2016809).
      Nomenclatural synonyms:
        Echinocereus viridiflorus var. chloranthus (Engelmann) Backeberg 1960:2015.
        Echinocereus viridiflorus fa. chloranthus (Engelmann) Krainz 1967:51.
        Echinocereus viridiflorus subsp. chloranthus (Engelmann) Taylor 1997:10.
          Note: Usually listed as Echinocereus chloranthus Engelmann ex Rumpler 1886:814.
Echinocereus chloranthus var. albispinus* Frič 1924:121 nom. nud.
Echinocereus chloranthus var. cylindricus (Engelmann) Taylor 1984:169.
  = Echinocereus viridiflorus var. cylindricus.
Echinocereus chloranthus subsp. cylindricus (Engelmann) Blum & Lange in Blum et al. 1998a:3. [see Blum et al. 1998b: 205].
  = Echinocereus viridiflorus var. cylindricus.
Echinocereus chloranthus var. davisii* Cullmann 1984:pl. 154.  nom. inval.
  = Echinocereus davisii.
Echinocereus chloranthus var. flaviflorus* Hort. nom. nud.
Echinocereus chloranthus var. flavispininus* Ito 1952:133 nom. inval. (no Latin diagnosis).
Echinocereus chloranthus var. livermorensis* Kolle 1978:34 nom. inval.
  = Echinocereus russanthus subsp.. weedinii.
Echinocereus chloranthus var. longisetus* Hort. nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus russanthus subsp.. weedinii.
Echinocereus chloranthus var. milleri* Hochstatter Seed List 1997 nom. nud.
  [See Echinocereus milleri*].
Echinocereus chloranthus var. neocapillus Weniger 1969:39-41.
  Type - locality: Texas, 5 to 10 miles south of Marathon; Weniger 711 (UNM).
    Nomenclatural synonyms:
      Echinocereus viridiflorus var. neocapillus (Weniger) Leuck ex Zimmerman in Powell & Weedin 2004:267.
      Echinocereus russanthus var. neocapillus* Mesa Garden Seed Catalog 1996 nom. nud.
      Echinocereus neocapillus Blum & Lange in Blum et al. 1998b:219.
Echinocereus chloranthus subsp. rhyolithensis Blum & Lange in Blum et al. 1998a:4. [see Blum et al. 1998b:208.]
  Type - locality: New Mexico, Sierra County, Lake Valley; Pierce 110, 1961 (UNM).
Echinocereus chloranthus var. roseiflorus* Ito 1981.(according to Evanich 1989:103) nom. nud.
Echinocereus chloranthus var. russanthus (Weniger) Lamb ex Rowley 1974a:7
  = Echinocereus russanthus.
Echinocereus chloranthus var. senilis* Frič 1924:121 nom. nud.
Echinocereus chloranthus var. vulpis-cauda* Chudleigh 1967:43 nom. nud.
  [Probably = Echinocereus russanthus].
Echinocereus chloranthus subsp. weedinii* Hochstatter Seed List 1997 nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus russanthus subsp. weedinii.
Echinocereus chlorophthalmus (Hooker) Britton & Rose 1913:242.
  basionym: Echinocactus chlorophthalmus Hooker 1848:t. 4373.
    Type - locality: Mexico, Hidalgo, Real del Monte; ? (?).
      Nomenclatural synonyms:
        Echinocereus cinerascens fa. chlorophthalmus* Parker 1996:2 nom. nud.
        Note: This species is often considered a taxonomic synonym of Echinocereus cinerascens.
Echinocereus chrysocentrus (Engelmann & Bigelow) Orcutt 1926:4.
  = Echinocereus engelmannii var. chrysocentrus.
Echinocereus cinerascens* Engelmann ex Haage 1859:19 nom. nud.
  [Probably = Echinocereus cinerascens].
Echinocereus cinerascens* Lemaire 1868:56 nom. nud.
  [Probably = Echinocereus cinerascens].
Echinocereus cinerascens (De Candolle) De Candolle ex Rumpler 1886:786.
  basionym: Cereus cinerascens De Candolle 1828:116.
    Type - locality: Mexico, Zimapan; Coulter 23 (?).
      Nomenclatural synonyms:
        Cereus acinaciformis* Steudel 1841:333 pro syn.
        Cereus acinaciformis* Hort. Berol. ex Salm-Dyck 1845:27 pro syn.
        Echinocereus deppei*(Salm-Dyck) Schumann 1895:123 pro syn.
        Echinocereus undulatus* Hildmann ex Schumann 1895:124 pro syn.
          Note: Cereus deppei, Echinocereus cirrhiferus and Echinocereus glycimorphus are usually considered taxonomic synonyms
            of  Echinocereus cinerascens.
Echinocereus cinerascens var. caesius* Hort. ex Schelle 1926:169 nom. nud.
Echinocereus cinerascens fa. chlorophthalmus* Parker 1996:2 nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus chlorophtahlmus.
Echinocereus cinerascens var. crassior (De Candolle) De Candolle ex Rumpler 1886:786-787.
  basionym: Cereus cinerascens var. crassior De Candolle 1828:116.
    Type - locality: Mexico, Zimapan; Coulter (?).
      Nomenclatural synonyms:
        Cereus aciniformis* Otto 1833:336 nom. nud.
        Cereus aciniformis* Hort. Berol. ex Pfeiffer 1837:101 pro syn.
Echinocereus cinerascens var. ehrenbergii (Pfeiffer) Bravo 1974:47.
  = Echinocereus ehrenbergii.
Echinocereus cinerascens subsp. ehrenbergii (Pfeiffer) Blum & Rutow in Blum et al. 1998a:4. [see Blum et al. 1998b:140-141].
  = Echinocereus ehrenbergii.
Cereus cinerascens var. fendleri (Engelmann) Bois 1928:371.
  = Echinocereus fendleri.
Echinocereus cinerascens fa. glycimorphus* Parker 1996:2 nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus glycimorphus.
Echinocereus cinerascens var. schmidtii* Haage 1859:19 nom. nud.
Echinocereus cinerascens var. septentrionalis Taylor 1988:68-69.
  Type - locality: Mexico, San Luis Potosi, Entronque Huizache; Taylor 281, 10 July 1986 (MEXU).
    Nomenclatural synonyms:
      Echinocereus cinerascens subsp. septentrionalis.
Echinocereus cinerascens subsp. septentrionalis Taylor 1997:8.
  = Echinocereus cinerascens var. septentrionalis .
Echinocereus cinerascens fa. spinibarbis* Parker 1996:2 nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus spinibarbis* Hildmann [not Salm-Dyck].
Echinocereus cinerascens var. tenuior (De Candolle) De Candolle ex Rumpler 1886:776.
  basionym: Cereus cinerascens var. tenuior De Candolle 1828:116.
  Type - locality: Mexico, Zimapan; Coulter (?).
Echinocereus cinerascens var. tulensis Taylor 1988:69.
  = Echinocereus tulensis.
Echinocereus cinerascens subsp. tulensis (Bravo) Taylor 1997:8.
  = Echinocereus tulensis.
*Echinocereus cinnabarinus = Echinopsis cinnabarina.
Echinocereus cirrhiferus* Engelmann ex Haage 1859:19 nom. nud.
Echinocereus cirrhiferus (Labouret) Labouret ex Rumpler 1886:778.
  Basionym: Cereus cirrhiferus Labouret 1853:311.
    Type - locality: Mexico; ? (?).
      Note: Usually considered a taxonomic synonym of Echinocereus cinerascens.
Echinocereus cirrhiferus var. virescens* Walton 1898:12 nom. nud.
*Echinocereus clavatus = Eridisia spiniflora.
Echinocereus claviformis* Haage 1859:19. nom. nud.
Echinocereus claviformis (Regel & Klein) Haage 1893:22.
  basionym: Cereus claviformis Regel & Klein 1860:46.
    Type - locality: Mexico, Karwinsky ( ? ).
Echinocereus coccineus Engelmann 1848a:93.
  Type - locality: New Mexico, Wolf Creek, Wislizenus, 24 June 1846 (MO 2016699).
    Nomenclatural synonyms:
      Cereus coccineus (Engelmann) Engelmann 1849:51 nom. illegit. [not Cereus coccineus Salm- Dyck 1828].
      Cereus phoeniceus* Engelmann 1856:284. new name for Echinocereus coccineus.
      Echinocereus phoeniceus* Engelmann ex Rumpler 1886:788 nom. illegit.
      Echinocereus melanacanthus* Engelmann ex Earl 1963:61 printing error.
      Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. coccineus (Engelmann) Engelmann ex Marshall & Bock 1941:117.
        Note: Benson uses the name Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. melanacanthus for this species.
Echinocereus coccineus subsp. aggregatus Blum, Lange & Rutow in Blum et al. 1998a:4. [see Blum et al. 1998b:428 ].
  Type - locality: Headwaters of the Gila, 6,000 ft.;  Emory, 18 Oct. 1846 (?). [Neotype: New Mexico, Grant Co., San Lorenzo;
    Benson 16660 , July 1966 (POM 317382) [Benson 1982:937].
  Nomenclatural synonyms:
    Mammillaria aggregata* Engelmann 1848b:157. nom. prov.
    Mammillaria aggregata* Engelmann ex Watson 1878:398. pro syn.
Echinocereus coccineus var. arizonicus (Orcutt) Ferguson 1989:221.
  = Echinocereus arizonicus.
Echinocereus coccineus var. arizonicus fa. matudae* Parker 1996:4 nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus matudae.
Echinocereus coccineus subsp. canyonensis* Blum 1997 Seed List nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus canyonensis.
Echinocereus coccineus var. conoideus* Weniger 1970:42 nom. inval. (no basionym given).
  = Echinocereus conoideus.
Cereus coccineus var. cylindricus Engelmann 1849:51.
  Type - locality: New Mexico, Mtns. near Santa Fe, Fendler; 17 Sept. 1846 (MO).
    Note: This plant is usually considered as a synonym of Echinocereus coccineus subsp. coccineus and has never been recombined
      under the genus Echinocereus.
Echinocereus coccineus var. gurneyi (Benson) Heil & Brack 1988:26.
  = Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. gurneyi.
Echinocereus coccineus subsp. gurneyi* Blum 1997 Seed List nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. gurneyi .
Echinocereus coccineus subsp. gurneyi (L. Benson) D. Felix & H. Bauer 2014. - EcJ-Online 2 Sonderheft: XIII
  = Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. gurneyi .
Echinocereus coccineus fa. hexaedrus* Parker 1996:4 nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus hexaedrus.
Echinocereus coccineus var. inermis (Schumann) Purpus 1925:49.
  basionym: Echinocereus phoeniceus var. inermis Schumann 1896a:150.
    Type - locality: Colorado, Mesa Grande, Tongue Creek; C. A. Purpus (?).
      Nomenclatural synonyms:
        Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. inermis (Schumann) Arp 1973:132-133.
        Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. mojavensis fa. inermis (Schumann) Ferguson 1989:219.
        Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. melanacanthus fa. inermis* Alabaster 1994:105 nom. inval.
        Echinocereus coccineus var. mojavensis fa. inermis* Parker 1996:4 nom. nud.
        Echinocereus mojavensis fa. inermis* Mesa Garden Seed Catalog 1996 nom. nud.
        Echinocereus triglochidiatus subsp. mojavensis fa. inermis Blum in Blum et al. 1998a:9. [see Blum et al. 1998b:365].
Echinocereus coccineus var. kunzei (Gurke) Backeberg 1960:2070.
  = Echinocereus kunzei.
Cereus coccineus var. melanacanthus Engelmann 1849:51.
  Type - locality: New Mexico, Santa Fe; Fendler, 26 Nov. 1846 (MO).
    Nomenclatural synonyms:
      Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. melanacanthus (Engelmann) Benson 1944:254.
        Note: This is the name Benson applies to Echinocereus coccineus.
Echinocereus coccineus fa. lloydii* Parker 1996:4 nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus lloydii.
Echinocereus coccineus var. mojavensis* Parker 1996:4 nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus mojavensis.
Echinocereus coccineus subsp. mojavensis (Engelmann & Bigelow) Taylor 1997:8.
  = Echinocereus mojavensis.
Echinocereus coccineus var. mojavensis fa. inermis* Parker 1996:4 nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus coccineus var. inermis.
Echinocereus coccineus var. neomexicanus* Parker 1996:4 nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus neomexicanus.
Echinocereus coccineus var. neomexicanus fa. rosei* Parker 1996:4 nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus rosei.
Echinocereus coccineus var. nudum* Auct ? (CSJ 35:194) nom. nud.
Echinocereus coccineus var. octacanthus* Boissevain & Davidson 1940:39 nom. illegit.
  = Echinocereus octacantus (Muehlenpfordt) Britton & Rose 1922. [based on Echinopsis octacanthus Muehlenpfordt January,
    1848].
      Note: Echinocereus coccineus Engelmann 1848 was published in Wislizenus April 2, 1848.
Echinocereus coccineus var. paucispinus (Engelmann) Ferguson 1989:222.
  = Echinocereus paucispinus.
Echinocereus coccineus subsp. paucispinus Blum, Lange & Rutow in Blum et al. 1998a:4. [see Blum et al. 1998b:433].
  = Echinocereus paucispinus.
Echinocereus coccineus fa. roemeri* Parker 1996:4 nom. nud.
  = Echinocereus roemeri.
Echinocereus coccineus subsp. roemeri Blum, Lange & Rutow in Blum et al. 1998a:4. [see Blum et al. 1998b:426].
  = Echinocereus roemeri.
Echinocereus coccineus fa. rosei* Blum 1990:13. nom. inval. (no basionym given).
  = Echinocereus rosei.
Echinocereus coccineus subsp. rosei Blum & Rutow in Blum et al. 1998a:4. [see Blum et al. 1998b:426].
  = Echinocereus rosei.
Echinocereus coccineus var. rosei Zimmerman ex Powell & Weedin 2004:203.
  = Echinocereus rosei.
Echinocereus coccineus subsp. santaritensis (W. Blum & Rutow) M.A.Baker in Felger et al.2014:38.
  = Echinocereus santaritensis
Echinocereus coccineus subsp. transpecosensis Blum & Oldach 2015:52-64.
  Type - locality: Texas, Hudspeth Co., North of Sierra Blanca; Powell 6240 (SRSC)
Cereus concolor Schott1857:ii .
  Type - locality: Texas, Pecos County, Escondido Springs; Schott (?).
    Note: Apparently a form of Echinocereus chloranthus that has never been formally transfered to the genus Echinocereus.
Echinocereus congestispinus* Engelmann ex Haage 1859:19 nom. nud.
Echinocereus congestispinus* Forster ex Seitz 1870:10 nom. nud.
Echinocereus conglomeratus* Forster ex Seitz 1870:10 nom. nud.
Echinocereus conglomeratus Blanc 1890:56.
  Type - locality: Nuevo Leon, Rinconada; Mathsson, 24 Sept. 1889 (?) [according to Schumann 1897:278].
    Nomenclatural synonyms:
      Echinocereus bolansis* Runge ex Haage 1892:117 pro syn.
      Cereus conglomeratus (Blanc) Berger 1905:81.
      Echinocereus enneacanthus var. conglomeratus (Blanc) Benson 1974:80.
      Echinocereus stramineus var. conglomeratus (Blanc) Bravo1974:47.
      Echinocereus stramineus fa. conglomeratus* Parker 1996:3 nom. nud.
        Note: This is usually listed as Echinocereus conglomeratus Forster ex Schumann 1897:278. It is usually considered a
          taxonomic synonym of Echinocereus stamineus subsp. stramineus
Echinocereus conglomeratus var. robustior* Haage 1892:117 nom. nud.
Echinocereus conoideus (Engelmann & Bigelow) Engelmann ex Rumpler 1886:807.
  basionym: Cereus conoideus Engelmann & Bigelow in Engelmann 1856:284. [see Engelmann 1857:35].
    Type - locality: New Mexico, Anton Chico; J. M. Bigelow, 24 Sept. 1853 (MO).
      Nomenclatural synonyms:
        Cereus phoeniceus subsp. conoideus (Engelmann & Bigelow) Engelmann 1857:37.
        Echinocereus phoeniceus* var. conoideus Schumann 1896:150.
Echinocereus coccineus var. conoideus* Weniger 1970:42 nom. inval.
  Note: This species is usually treated as a taxonomic synonym of Echinocereus coccineus.
Echinocereus cowperi* Hort ex Blum et al. 1998b:208 pro syn. Echinocereus chloranthus subsp. rhyolithensis.
Echinocereus crispatus* Mathsson 1890:464 nom. nud.